Previous select publications (2020 and earlier)

Barkham, M., Broglia, E., Dufour, G., Fudge, M., Knowles, L., Percy, A., ... Williams, C. (2019). Towards an evidence‐base for student wellbeing and mental health: Definitions, developmental transitions and data sets. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 19, 351-357.

Blood, L., Adams, G., Turner, H., and Waller, G. (2020). Group dialectical behavioural therapy for binge-eating disorder: Outcomes from a community case series. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 53(11), 1863-1867.

Bone, C., Delgadillo, J., and Barkham, M. (2020). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the good-enough level (GEL) literature. Journal of Counseling Psychology. Advance online publication.

Broglia, E., and Knowles, L. (2020). Navigating the landscape of ‘evidence’ in research. In S. Bager-Charleson and A. McBeath (Eds.), Enjoying research in counselling and psychotherapy (pp. 265-278). Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmilllan.

Broglia, E., Millings, A., and Barkham, M. (2019). Counseling with guided use of a mobile well-being app for students experiencing anxiety or depression: Clinical outcomes of a feasibility trial embedded in a student counseling service. JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 7(8). e14318.

Connell, J., Carlton, J., Grundy, A., Buck, E. T., Keetharuth, A. D., Ricketts, T., ... Brazier, J. (2018). The importance of content and face validity in instrument development: Lessons learnt from service users when developing the Recovering Quality of Life measure (ReQoL). Quality of Life Research, 27(7), 1893-1902.

Delgadillo, J., Branson, A., Kellett, S., Myles-Hooton, P., Hardy, G., and Shafran, R. (2020). Therapist personality traits as predictors of psychological treatment outcomes. Psychotherapy Research, 30(7), 857-870.

Delgadillo, J., de Jong, K., Lucock, M., Lutz, W., Rubel, J., Gilbody, S., ... McMillan, D. (2018). Feedback-informed treatment versus usual psychological treatment for depression and anxiety: A multisite, open-label, cluster randomised controlled trial. The Lancet Psychiatry, 5(7), 564-572.

Delgadillo, J., and Gonzalez Salas Duhne, P. (2020). Targeted prescription of cognitive-behavioral therapy versus person-centered counseling for depression using a machine learning approach. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 88(1), 14–24.

Delgadillo, J., Rubel, J., and Barkham, M. (2020). Towards personalized allocation of patients to therapists. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 88(9), 799–808.

Faija, C. L., Connell, J., Welsh, C., Ardern, K., Hopkin, E., Gellatly, J., ... Bee, P. (2020). What influences practitioners’ readiness to deliver psychological interventions by telephone? A qualitative study of behaviour change using the Theoretical Domains Framework. BMC Psychiatry, 20(1), 1-16.

Firth, N., Barkham, M., Kellett, S., and Saxon, D. (2015). Therapist effects and moderators of effectiveness and efficiency in psychological wellbeing practitioners: A multilevel modelling analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 69, 54-62.

Firth, N., Bone, C., and Holt, R. (2020). Health psychology attendance: A multilevel analysis of patient-level predictors and therapist effects. Health Psychology, 39(11), 945–955.

Firth, N., Saxon, D., Stiles, W. B., and Barkham, M. (2019). Therapist and clinic effects in psychotherapy: A three-level model of outcome variability. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 87, 345–356.

Firth, N., Saxon, D., Stiles, W. B., and Barkham, M. (2020). Therapist effects vary significantly across psychological treatment care sectors. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 27, 770-778.

Gonzalez Salas Duhne, P., Horan, A. J., Ross, C., Webb, T. L., and Hardy, G. E. (2020). Assessing and promoting the use of implementation intentions in clinical practice. Social Science and Medicine, 265, 113490.

Hallam, C., Simmonds‐Buckley, M., Kellett, S., Greenhill, B., and Jones, A. (2020). The acceptability, effectiveness, and durability of cognitive analytic therapy: Systematic review and meta‐analysis. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. Advance online publication.

Hernandez Hernandez, M. E., Waller, G., and Hardy G. (2020). Cultural adaptations of cognitive behavioural therapy for Latin American patients: Unexpected findings from a systematic review. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 13, e57.

Laker, V., and Waller, G. The development of a body comparison measure: The CoSS. Eating and Weight Disorders: Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 25, 879–888.

Lorimer, B., Delgadillo, J., Kellett, S., and Brown, G. (2020). Exploring relapse through a network analysis of residual depression and anxiety symptoms after cognitive behavioural therapy: A proof-of-concept study. Psychotherapy Research, 30(5), 650-661.

Nye, A., Connell, J., Haake, R., and Barkham, M. (2019). Person-centred experiential therapy (PCET) training within a UK NHS IAPT service: Experiences of selected counsellors in the PRaCTICED trial. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 47(5), 619-634.

Robinson, L., Kellett, S., and Delgadillo, J. (2020). Dose-response patterns in low and high intensity cognitive behavioral therapy for common mental health problems. Depression and Anxiety, 37(3). 285-294.

Simmonds-Buckley, M., Bennion, M. R., Kellett, S., Millings, A., Hardy, G. E., and Moore, R. K. (2020). Acceptability and effectiveness of NHS-recommended e-therapies for depression, anxiety, and stress: Meta-analysis. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22(10), e17049.

Wakefield, S., Kellett, S., Simmonds‐Buckley, M., Stockton, D., Bradbury, A., and Delgadillo, J. (2020). Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) in the United Kingdom: A systematic review and meta‐analysis of 10‐years of practice‐based evidence. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. Advance online publication.

The Recovering Quality of Life (ReQoL) measures

This section includes:

For more information on using ReQoL, please contact (Department of Psychology) or (ScHARR).

ReQoL outcome measure

ReQol questionnaires

ReQoL-10 (PDF 157KB)

ReQoL-20 (PDF 177KB)

The Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation (CORE) measures

This section contains high-quality PDF files of the English versions for the family of CORE outcome measures.

CORE outcome measures


The original 34-item outcome measure comprising the domains of subjective wellbeing, problems, functioning, and risk (to self and others) and thereby yielding valuable assessment information. 

CORE-OM reference: Evans, C., Connell, J., Barkham, M., Margison, F., McGrath, G., Mellor-Clark, J., and Audin, K. (2002). Towards a standardised brief outcome measure: Psychometric properties and utility of the CORE-OM. British Journal of Psychiatry.

CORE short form

CORE short form A (PDF, 117KB)

CORE Short Form B (PDF, 122KB)

Two 18-item versions drawn from the CORE-OM that were designed to be used alternately when adopting repeated measurement in research studies so as to reduce memory effects.

Short Form A and B reference: Evans, C., Connell, J., Barkham, M., Margison, F., McGrath, G., Mellor-Clark, J., and Audin, K. (2002). Towards a standardised brief outcome measure: Psychometric properties and utility of the CORE-OM. British Journal of Psychiatry.


CORE-10 (PDF, 135KB)

A 10-item version drawn from the CORE-OM comprising the domains of problems, functioning, and a risk item, thereby providing an easy-to-use version that can be used session-by-session.

CORE-10 reference: Barkham, M., Bewick, B. M., Mullin, T., Gilbody, S., Connell, J., Cahill, J., Mellor-Clark, J., Unsworth, G., Richards, D., and Evans, C. (2013). The CORE-10: A short measure of psychological distress for routine use in the psychological therapies. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 13, 3-13.



A 10-item version designed for young people comprising items reframed for a population aged 11 to 16.

YP-CORE reference: Twigg, E., Cooper, M., Evans, C., Friere, E., Mellor-Clark, J., McInnis, B., and Barkham, M. (2016). YP-CORE Large-scale replication of YP-CORE validation: Presenting norms and cut-offs for the YP-CORE outcome measure. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 21, 115-123.



A 14-item version designed for a general population and has been used in student surveys of wellbeing. 

GP-CORE reference: Sinclair, A., Barkham, M., Evans, C., Connell, J., and Audin K. (2005). Rationale and development of a general population well-being measure: Psychometric status of the GP-CORE in a student sample. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 33, 153-174.


LD-CORE-14 (PDF, 265KB)

A 14-item version designed for the learning disability population. 

LD-CORE (14-item) reference: Barton, P., Brooks, M., Davies, S., Flynn, T., and Wood, V. (2008). From CORE-OM to CORE-LD through participatory research. Clinical Psychology and People with Learning Disabilities, 6, 27–28.

CORE measures: Conditions of use and more information

All versions are made available for reuse under the Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. The measures can be download and reused without charge but they cannot be changed or used for financial gain.

The measures can be incorporated into software providing they are

More information is available at Email to obtain the appropriate permissions if you are considering this course of action.

More information regarding translations of all versions in multiple languages (currently approximately 25) are available at and any queries about translations of CORE measures should be directed to

For any queries regarding data arising from using CORE measures, contact in the first instance.

For any queries about CORE Net, an IT platform supporting the implementation of CORE measures (as well as other measures), contact at CORE Information Management Systems (